I presume in this case he only signed the original deposition. This is a carbon copy as you will note, and Major Matt has sworn to this and we have it attached here on the document sheet. This comes in the official course of business and so forth of the War Crimes Section of the British Army of the Rhine
THE PRESIDENT: My point in connection with this document was while it is stated to be a copy, it does not show the signature of the affiant. The Tribunal will permit the reading of the documents and reserve the ruling on the admissibility until later.
JUDGE SEBRING: It is understood, of course, the Prosecution is going to submit for the inspection of the Tribunal, the underlying certificate made by the British Investigating Officer?
MR. HARDY: That is correct.
JUDGE SEBRING: The Court then will reserve its ruling until that time.
MR. HARDY: At this time, I will read this document into the record and will give it a Prosecution Exhibit Number for the purpose of convenience and then the ruling at a later date can take place. This Document is NO-876which will be Prosecution Exhibit No. 235 - 225, pardon me. As I stated before this is an affidavit of Jadwiga Kaminska. This was taken in Brussels before Major Rant and states as follows:
"I, Jadwiga Kaminska, 24 Avenue de 1'Yser, Brussels, make oath and state as follows:
"I was arrested on 18 March 1941 and arrived in Ravensbruck on 27 September 1941 and left the camp on the 16 April 1946.
"I was twice operated on during my stay in the camp. The first time was August 15, 1942, in the second group of prisoners to be operated on; the following were operated on with me: Kormanska, Zofia; Kaminska, Zofia; Karolewska, Vladyslava; Jurkowska, Alicia; Karwacka, Ursula; Iwanska, Yanina; Iwanska, Krystyna; Karesman, Muria.
"In the morning of the same day we were operated on we were all sent to the Revier not knowing what was to happen to us. Five of us were sent to one room and the two Inwanska sisters and Karwacka to another. On arrival we all had baths and were given small hospital shirts and blouses. We had no medical examination and were given nothing to eat. When they were taking me to the operating theatre I fought to keep out but was held down by the nurse Ericka and two owner nurses in the corridor whilst Dr. Rosentahl gave me an anaesthetic by injection in my arm.
Just before I had the injection I saw Gebhardt in the corridor and I also recognize him on No. 3 in the group of photographs. I also saw Dr. Oberhauser going into the Operating theatre. When I came round, I found that all of us had been operated on and that my right leg was in plaster up to the knee, three days later I was taken to the Dressing Room and my face was covered with a sheet so that I could not see what going on, I recognized the voices of Oberhauser, Rosenthal, Schidlauski and there were several others there whose voices I did not recognize. I heard another Doctor who I believe removed plaster ask for instruments.
"Immediately after the operation I had a temperature of 39 degree, the first week after the operation it varied between 38 and 39. When I was sent back to my block three weeks after the operation I still had some fever and felt very weak.
After the first operation Gebhardt came into the room where I was having my dressing changed with several other doctors and talked about the operations and said they were "Military Operations". I recognized Gebhardt when he came into the room.
"About a week after my first operation Rosenthal came into our room drunk. We asked him why we had been operated on, he answered "because you are young girls and Polish Patriots." Oberhauser was also asked the same question She answered that the operation had been ordered by the Gestapo. Dr. Fischer advised us to ask the Senior Doctor, Schidlausky, why we had been operated on, but after that we never saw Schidlausky again.
"I was in great pain after the operation, the first two days we were offered a medicine but refused to take it after which we were offered nothing.
"About a week after the operation I first saw my wound which was about 10 cms. long and 5 cms. wide and full of green pus and very inflamed. It is now 10 cms. long and about 3 cms. in width.
"Thee days after my first dressing the second one was done under similar circumstances as the first, but I managed to pull the sheet off my face for a few seconds and saw Dr. Fischer who was doing my dressing.
"I was operated on the second time on 13 September 1942, with five others who were: Wojtaski, Wanda; Rakowska, Pelagia; Gnas, Maria; Kaminska, Jadwiga; Karolewska, Vladislava,; Karwacka, Ursula.
"The day before the operation I was again put in the Revier and had a bath and then salt compresses were put on my wound by the nurse Wricke and another nurse. Before the second operation I was given something to drink which made we sleep and consequently knew no details of the operation.
"When I came to from this operation I had much more fever than the first time; we were given something to drink three times a day to alleviate the pain but it had little effect; in the evening, however, Oberhauser gave us morphine injections. We were not in plaster after the second operation. The first two times my dressings were changed by Dr. Fischer and afterwards by Schidlausky and Oberhauser and also by SS nurses.
"After my second operation I stayed in the Revier three months, during all that time I had fever and felt very weak and I was given no care.
"When I left the Revier three months after that operation my fever had almost gone but my wound was still open. Before I left the Revier Oberhauser had a look at my wound, and said I was fit to go. In March 1943 my leg was still discharging pus.
"In February 1945 the order came out that all of us who had been operated on were to remain in our blocks. We knew this meant we were to be liquidated.
"I went to the bureau and spoke to Binz and Swarzhuber; they told me that as we were still weak we would be transferred to the Gresrosen camp. I said that was not true but that we should be shot in the camp without being transferred.
"I demanded of Swarzhuber that I saw Suhren; he said it was impossible. After a few days, however, I saw Suhren and told him that we would rather be killed in the camp than at Grossrosen. Suhren said he would do everything in his power to save us.
"My leg is new healed but gets tired very quickly and during the last three months I have had intermittent fever which my doctor tells me is due to recurrence of infection in my leg and also the glands in my right groin have become swollen. Signed Jadwiga Kaminska."
At this time, Your Honors, we now have all the original certificates signed by Major Mant. They have just been brought down from the document room, and in order to avoid confusion at a later date, at this time I will submit the certificates for your examination.
(The Tribunal examining certificates.)
MR. HARDY: All those certificates take the same form, Your Honors.
JUDGE SEBRING: Do you have one affidavit attached to each of the exhibits?
MR. HARDY: I have one attached to each exhibit, yes, sir. I believe you have all the affidavits before you now, Your Honors.
THE PRESIDENT: The certificates by the British officer, Major Mant, are original certificates and appear to be in order. The objection of the Defendants' Counsel to the admission of the affidavits is overruled. You may now mark Document No-876 as an admitted exhibit.
MR. HARDY: Thank you. Your Honor.
"I, Zofia Sokulska, of Lund Sweden, make oath and state as follows:
I arrived in Ravensbrueck on the 21st September 1941 from Warsaw, together with 450 other prisoners. I left the camp on the first Swedish Red Cross transport on April 23rd, 1943. I had been arrested by the Gestapo on May 8th, 1941, as I was an active member of the Polish Resistance Movement.
During my stay in Ravensbrueck I was operated on experimentally on two occasions. There were another two attempts made to operate, on me, which I thwarted. On the 1st of August 1942, I was told to report to the big Revier, with 9 other prisoners, by Halina Bolla, secretary to Mandl. At the Revier we were examined by Fraeulein Doctor Oberhauser. After this examination I was told I was too thin and was sent away. The other 9 girls were subsequently operated on.
On September 21st, 1942 I was sent for again by Oberhauser, before whom I undressed, and after a purely visual examination she told me I was fit to be operated on. I told Oberhauser that a few weeks before I had been dismissed because I was too thin and that I had a weak heart.
To this Oberhauser replied that it did not matter. I may add that between these two examinations by Oberhauser I had not other food than the normal camp diet. Oberhauser then sent for a German internee nurse, Gerda Quernheim, who took me to room No.4 in the Grand Revier. When I arrived at room No. 4 there were already three other Polish girls there who had already been operated on and were encased in plaster cast of both legs from the thighs to the feet. The names of those girls are:
Aniela Soboleska, who had already been in there two to three weeks. This girl was afterwards shot;
Kristina Dabska, who had been there about a week;
Zofia Stefamiak, who had also been there between two and three weeks.
I was sent to the bathroom, and after my return was told I would be operate on the next day. Before my operation SS nurse Frieda shaved both my legs, gave me an injection in the thigh and a glass of what I imagined to be morphine, to drink. The following is a description of SS nurse Frieda: She was about 1.50 metres tall, ugly, fat, bow-legged, wore glasses, brown hair streaked with grey, aged about 40.
I was later taken to the operating theatre by Lenurse Frieda and Fina Pautz. Present in the theatre were, whom I recognize her: Doctors Fischer, Oberhauser and Rosenthal. There was also present an SS nurse whose name I do not know. I do know, however, that she had been in the camp only a short time. There was also present a doctor whose name I do not know, but I have seen him on subsequent occasions and understand that he was an assistant to Dr. Gebhardt.
My left leg was flexed fully at the knee and held in this position by bandage encircling my flexed knee joint. Dr. Oberhauser then put an injection into a vein of my arm and told me to count whilst doing so. I counted up to 3 and then remembered no more until I woke up the next morning in my bed in room No.4. I was told my operation had taken 3 hours. When I came out of the anaesthetic I felt sick, but suffered from no pain or fever. My left leg was encased in a plaster cast from the foot to the top of the thigh. Oberhauser later came into room No.4 and told me that my operation had not been serious and that I should be able to walk in 11 days.
Eight days later my plaster was removed by Doctors Oberhauser and Fischer. Doctor Schidlauski was present, but merely as an onlooker, I had a scar on my left leg on the outer part, back of the shin bone, about 10 cm. long and curved backwards about 2 cm. in its under portion. During this period after the operation I had no pain and no temperature. When the wound was nearly healed, the plaster was removed. About the 11th day after the operation my stitches were removed and I began to walk. I found my leg was very weak, but about three weeks later I was able to walk normally. When I was able to walk satisfactorily Oberhauser told me I must start work again, and from the 21st October 1942 until March 1943 I worked in the Big Revier rolling bandages.
On the 2nd December 1942 Oberhauser told me I was to be operated on again. I asked her why, and she stated she did not know but it had to be done. For my second operation Doctors Fischer and Oberhauser and SS nurse Dora were in theatre. Oberhauser again gave me anesthetic, and during the operation the wound from my previous operation was opened up. When I came round from the anesthetic I found that his time my leg had not been encased in plaster but only bandaged. This second operation of mine I was told also took 3 hours. As after my first operation, the second one was followed by no pain or temperature After 8 days Dr. Oberhauser removed my bandage and placed on a strip of adhesive plaster. On this day also I started to walk again. A week later I was sent back to my block, which was Block 15.
I should like to add that during and following both of my operations we were given no attention whatsoever. The dressings were dirty when they were changed, we were given no washing facilities, and whoever in the ward was most ambulant had to look after the sanitary arrangements for the others who were immobile in their plaster casts.
At present, as a result of my two operations, the only disability I suffer is a very weak left ankle.
In January 1943 two Polish girls who had been operated on were shot. Their names were: GNAS, Maria, and PAJACZKOWSKA, Janina. Suhren himself came to room No. 4 and told us that they were to be set free. The girls were very surprised, because their wounds were not yet healed and no one was allowed to leave the camp unless comparatively fit. A secretary of Langenfeld later came to room 4 with a slip of paper bearing the names of the 2 girls, and also on the paper was that they were to go to Lublin after they had been set free. A friend of mine who worked in the Labor Office, called Halina Strzelecka, later found a slip of paper with these two girls' names on, both followed by a cross and a date and the fact that they had died of heart failure. Another friend of mine who worked in the Revier called Genowefa Biega looked through the book containing the records of all those who died in the camp, and found these two girls' names followed by a date and the fact that they had died from heart failure. When we learned that these two girls had definitely been shot, we sent a protest to the Camp Commandant, Suhren, but received no reply from him "One day in March, when arriving as usual for work in the Grand Revier, was told by Fina Pautz that Oberhauser wished to see me again, as I was to have a further operation.
On hearing this I immediately went from the Revier to my block, where I hid, and later, when Oberhauser's secretary came to look for me, my block leader said she did not know where I was. Following this, I tried to see Suhren personally. In this I was unsuccessful and was taken to Oberhauser consulting room by the guard Knopf. In Oberhauser's consulting room there were present: Oberhauser, Schidlauski, and several girls who were working there, including Krzyzanska, Jolante; Schidlauski struck me roughly and asked me why I had refused to come and be operated on, as I was going to be released after this next operation. To this I replied that this was not true and that I was going to be eventually shot and I would rather be shot before having another operation than after.
Schidlauski asked me why I was a prisoner in the camp, to which I replied:
'I love my country, I am Polish, and for that I am here.' To this he mad no reply and I left the room. Two days later Dr. Oberhauser informed me that work in the Revier was to cease and I was sent back to my block.
"Between March and August no further experimental operations were performed in the camp. Experiments were, however, carried out on dogs, but about this I can give no information. In August 1943, ten of us were told to report to the Revier. As we knew we were wanted for further experiments, we refused to go. Binz told us that it was no good refusing, because if we did she would get SS male guards and dogs to bring us along by forde. In spite of this, we attempted to hide amongst the other inmates but Binz and the camp policewomen caught us and led us off to the bunker. In the bunker, the ten of us were divided into two equal groups and each group of five was placed in a separate cell which was completely dark and had not furniture whatsoever. We were without food for forty-eight hours. After forty-eight hours the window was opened, so we had some light, and we were also given food. The five girls in the other cell, however, were operated on by force the day after we were taken to the bunker. The five girls who were operated on were: Helena Plasecka, Joanna Szydtowska, Stefania Sieklucka, Wladystawa Karolewska, the girl that testified here yesterday, Halina Piotrowska. Those who were present with me in my cell, who were not operated on, were as follows: Zofia Kormanska, Bogumita Bombinska, Pelagia Michalik, Ursula Krawacka. After the other five had been operated on, a Dr. Klimek came in and examined our legs. The following is a description of Dr. Klimek: Aged 34 - 35, height 1.80 metres, fair hair, pale face and grey eyes. On the 11th day after our internment in the bunker, Suhren himself came down and told us we were to be released from the bunker. After the last operations, which were carried out in August and September 1943, the following girls were shot: Maria Ziolonka, Apolinia Rakowska, Amiela Sobolewska, Rosalia Gutek.
"I have seen Oberhauser select patients during the time I was in bed following my second operation. These patients selected were taken to a small room in the Revier. Later Oberhauser went into this room herself with either Gerda Quernheim or Fina Pautz. The women who had been selected and sent to this room were never seen again. It was generally thought in the Revier that they were given lethal injections by Oberhauser. I personally have never seen Oberhauser give these injections, but I have helped carry down the bodies of the people selected in coffins from this room shortly after their selection.
These coffins were placed in a car which took them to the crematorium.
"Rosenthal, Quernheim and Pautz also gave injections. This method of extermination commenced shortly after a visit to the camp by Himmler, who is alleged to have said that the inmates of the camp were not dying fast enough, "I have seen Schidlauski and Rosenthal personally beat patients with their fists, and also kick them.
I have personally seen the following beat up inmates in the camp: Kowa, Kopka, Lehman, Mandl, Erich, Binz, Brauning, Skene (Skene was at one time block leader of my block No. 15, and she constantly beat the inmates), Opitz, Pelaum, Raabe, Schreitter, Schreiber, Dr. Sonntag (Dr. Sonntag was a sadist; he used to beat old inmates of the camp, patients, and he also beat his wife, who worked in the Revier, because she Drank. Zimmer, Winkelmann selected several thousand people for the gas chamber, mainly during February and March 1945. From September 1941 to April 1942 the block leader in charge of Block 15, called Hermina Kubica, was extremely sadistic, and beat the inmates unmercifully. Another block leader called Knoll, of Block 24, also used to maltreat the inmates and caused considerable trouble by spying on them and spreading false stories. On February 4 1945 we know that we were to be executed, as the orders came that we were not to leave our block, and were sent to work outside the camp. We remained in our block until the policewomen came to fetch us. After the policewomen came for us we left the block and hid among the other inmates. This way easy, owing to a large increase of internees, due to the evacuation from Auschwitz. We continued this existence until the liberation of the camp. I recognize the following people from the photographs shown me: Pflaum, Fischer, Suhren, Binz, Oberhauser, Rosenthal, Skene, Mory, Gebhardt, Treite, Winkelmann. (Signed) Zofia Sokulska."
Now turn to page 55 of your Honors' document books.
THE PRESIDENT: We will not proceed further with the admission of documents this morning. I shall now read an announcement by the Tribunal. In order that there may exist no confusion in the minds of counsel in the case now pending before this Tribunal concerning the status of exhibits offered heretofore by the prosecution. The Tribunal now states that all exhibits heretofore offered by the prosecution, to which objections by defendants' counsel were not sustained or taken under advisement for future ruling, are admitted in evidence, subject at final hearing or at any other time when the matter becomes pertinent, to argument by defendants' counsel concerning the probative value of any exhibit or any portion thereof.
The Secretary General will record the admission in evidence of the exhibits.
It is also understood that certain exhibits which consist of official documents which are now a part of the official records of any other proceeding or official file, may be withdrawn, and official certified copies whether photostats, photographs or any other appropriate form may be substituted for the originals.
The Tribunal will now be in recess until January 2nd 1947.
(The Tribunal adjourned until 2 January 1947, at 09:30 hours.)
Official transcript of the American Military Tribunal in the matter of the United States of America, against Karl Brandt, et all defendants, sitting at Nurnberg, Germany, on 2 January 1946, 0930, Justice Beals, presiding.
THE MARSHAL: The Honorable Judges of Military Tribunal 1.
Military 1 is now in session.
God save the United States of America and this Honorable Tribunal.
There will be order in the courtroom.
THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Marshal, ascertain if the defendants are all present.
THE MARSHAL: All the defendants are present in the courtroom.
THE PRESIDENT: The Secretary-General will note for the record the presence of all the defendants in court.
The prosecution may proceed.
MR. McHANEY: At the end of the session before the Christmas recess, prosecution was in the process of introducing evidence concerning the experiments at the Ravensbruck concentration camp. We had completed the introduction and reading of Document NO 873, which was Prosecution Exhibit 226, and the next document will be NO 871, that is on page 55 of the English document book and will be Prosecution Exhibit 227. This is an affidavit of one Zofia Baj, and it reads as follows:
"Deposition on oath of BAJ Zofia, female of 24 Avenue de l'Yser, Brussels. Sworn before Major Arthur Keith, MANT, R.A.M.C. of the War Crime Investigation Unit at Brussels on 12 August 1946.
"I Zofia Baj, 24 Avenue de l'Yser, Brussels, being duly sworn, depose and say:
"I was arrested on 7 February 1941, I came to Ravensbruck on 23 September 1941 and left the camp on 27 April 1945.
"Two experimental operations were carried out on me during my imprisonment in camp. The first on 3 November --"
The translation left out the year 1942. It so appears in the original.
" -- and the second on 23 February 1943.
"On the day of my first operation a list of 10 names including mine was read during the morning roll-call. We went to the office and asked Aufscherin Langerfeld what was wanted with us. She said she did not know, but shortly after, we were taken to the Revier (hospital). On our arrival at the Revier we first saw Oberhauser who examined us rapidly in order to verify whether our heart and lungs were sound. After that, we went to the X-Ray department where our chests were radiagraphed and out of the ten of us only two were considered able to stand the operation and live through it, i.e. myself and BACKIEL Maria (known in the camp as Irena). Fina Pautz then locked us in the ward-room with four other girls who had been selected before and were awaiting the operation. The names of these girls are:
She there lists the names, four Polish girls.
"Shortly after our arrival at the ward-room, Fina came with small glasses, she said they were containing morphia and that we should drink it. We refused to drink the liquid in the glasses, but Fina went out and came back with SS nurse ERIKA and bath together forced us to drink the morphia. After that, we started feeling dizzy and sleepy and we lay down, then Erika came and gave us a morphia injection. The four girls who were already there had received these injections twice a day since their arrival two days before, and they were feeling very sleepy. After the injection, we were taken to the bathroom where we were washed and Erika shaved our legs. When I came back, I was under the effect of the morphia and lying in my bed, realizing only from time to time what was going on around me. I saw, however, the girls coming back into the room after the operation. When they came to take us to the operation room, Backiel and I screamed, and struggled. Rosenthal put his hand ever my mouth and I bit him hard.
"Gerda and Fina came and put me by force on a rolling stretcher, I was too dizzy to fight any longer. I was taken through the hall to the operation room, and through the open door, I saw Dr. GEBHARDT, FISCHER, and OBERHAUSER. As I was lying on the stretcher, nurse DORA gave me an injection in the arm and put a mask over my face. I threw away the mask and then Dr. Rosenthal came and put his hand over my mouth.
Nurse Dora told me not to be afraid, for in a few minutes I would see flowers and hear bells, While I was lying on the stretcher, a man from the Political Department, whose name I do not know, came and took our names and numbers given to him by Fian. My operation lasted for 2 hours and 45 minutes. This was noted down by one of my friends who was working in the dental department of the Revier.
"I recovered consciousness later on in the evening and I noticed that I could not move because my legs and hips were in a plaster-cast. I was suffering terribly and I screamed with pain, so that Fina came and gave me another glass with morphia. Then I fell asleep.
"When I woke up the following morning I was given morphia again. At 11 o'clock SCHIDLAUSKI and OBERHAUSER visited us. Oberhauser touched my plastercast to see whether it was warm and, after that, she moved my toes. This caused a bad pain in the legs. I asked SCHIDLAUSKI why my legs hurt so much. He did not answer. Oberhauser asked him what she could do to relieve my pains. He replied 'Do not operate on them and they will not suffer'. Then he left the room.
"Schidlauski came every morning at 11 o'clock for two weeks and he brought us calmative tabloids, when he could not bring them himself, he ordered nurse Erna to do it. He told her, however, not to say anything about it to Oberhauser who was obviously studying our pain sensations. Oberhauser told us herself that she could not give us anything to relieve our pains because it would delay the healing of our legs.
"For six weeks my legs were radiographed every two weeks.
"After four weeks the plaster-cast was taken off by Oberhauser. The plaster-case was not supposed to be taken off so soon, but they had to do so because there were little black insects in the wool filling of the plastercast. I was not allowed to move after the plaster-cast had been removed.
"I did not leave the Revier between the first and the second operation.
"After the first radiograph which followed the first operation, Dr. Maczka told me that 5 centimeters of my left peroneus had been removed and about 5 or 6 of the right peroneus.
About 10 centimeters of periosteum of both shinbones had been scraped and five holes had been made as deep as the marrow on the right shinbone and six on the left shinbone, also as deep as the marrow.
"During the first six days after this operation I had over 40 degrees fever and afterwards, only a slight fever from time to time. I also had bad heart trouble and they gave me Coramine for it.
"The food given to us at the Revier was the ordinary food of the camp. Our friends, however, stole additional food for us whenever it was possible.
"Fina was supposed to take care of us, but she merely took our temperature, and another girl helped us wash up and took care of us generally. None of us in that room could move.
"SUHREN came to see us at the end of 1942, before Christmas, He asked us to give him all the details and promised us that there would be no more operations in the camp and that he would go to Berlin to stop all this officially. He also gave order that we should get from the SS kitchen, but the Aufscherinnen (female guards) did not carry out this order, I heard him say later on to a German inmate called Olga Schubert (she was the wife of Hitler's adjutant who had been killed by a bomb at the Munich attempt in 1935 or 36), who was sick at the Revier, that he would do everything to have these operations stopped.
"My second operation was carried out on 23 February 1943. As I had not got up since my first operation I was too weak to resist. Maczka came into the room with Schidlauski before the operation and asked him what was going to be done. He answered that he did not understand anything about these operations and that he did not approve of them. He then asked Maczka what had been done with me before and she told him what she had seen on the radiographs.
"The second time I was operated on by Fischer who had come out in the hall to see if I was the person he wanted to operate on because the week before, February 16, 1943, I had been sent to the operation room by mistake and, after Fischer had seen me, he said I was not one of the persons he was going to operate on that day.
Maczka told me later on that during this second operation my legs where opened up again and that the gaps between the two halves of the peroneus had closed by about 1 centimeter. During the operation another piece was removed from the **ur *nds of the peroneus, but nothing was done to the shinbones. After that my legs were sewn up again, but a curved needle and about 20 centimeters of silk thread were left in the wound of my left leg. This gave me terrible pains later on and was removed by Treite in February 1945. Treite did not want to do it saving that he was not allowed to touch my legs, but then he changed his mind and did it. I had this needle and the thread for awhile, but I lost them when I left Ravensbruck.
"The anesthetic was given to me the second time by nurse DORA.
"One week after the second operation I was told that I could try to walk. As it was not possible, I was given two walking sticks and only 6 months later could I walk without those walking sticks.
"At present, my legs hurt:
1. When I go downstairs 2. I cannot run because my toes slip 3. When I put my feet in hot water they contract and shake.
"At the Revier I saw a German woman who had been operated on by Rosenthal and Gerda. She was then about 8 months pregnant. In the operation room they did something to her which killed the child. As she went on bearing the child, the body of the child falling into decomposition had an odor which made it impossible to stay in the room. They then operated on her to try to remove the body of the child piece by piece, but in the meantime she got typhus and was transferred to block 11 where she died.
Rosenthal and Garda often operated on pregnant women.
I also saw Rosenthal come into the room at night with a syringe in his hand and the following morning several persons had died in a room of the Revier called "Stuebohen" where Rosenthal had taken them and given them a deadly injection.
I saw Oberhauser beating up and throwing out women who had come to have their legs looked after which had been badly cut during their work. She did not give them any treatment.
I recognize the pictures of FISCHER, GEBHARDT, OBERHAUSER, ROSENTHAL, SUHREN, BINZ and SKENE among the photographs which have been shown to me. Sworn by the said deponent Zofia Baj voluntarily at Brussels on 12 August 1946. Before me, Major Arthur Keith MANT, RAMC, Investigation Officer detailed by the Commander in Chief, British Army of the Rhine."
The next document is along the same line, and is an affidavit by another one of the victims of these operations at Ravensbrueck, and this is Document No. 887, which will be Prosecution's Exhibit No. 228.
"Deposition on oath of Janina Iwanska, female of 77 Avenue Wagram, sworn before Major ARTHUR KEITH MANT, RAMC, War Crimes Investigation Unit, BAOR, at Paris on" And the date appears at the end of the Document - 24 June 1946.
"The witness has been informed that she can speak freely and need not answer the questions asked, as her statement should be voluntary and spontaneous. The witness being duly sworn, deposes and says:
"I arrived at the Ravensbrueck camp on 23 September 1941 with 7000 Polish women. I had been arrested because of participation in resistance operations.
"On 15/9/42 an experimental operation was carried out on me in the camp.
"That morning, after roll-call, we had to go to the showers. Nurse Erika gave us a morphia injection. Dr. Oberhauser was then present at the Revier (hospital). Nurse Gerda gave me Evipan. The operation was carried out by Dr. Gebhardt and Dr. Fischer. As I had been given an anesthetic and as I was unconscious I did not see Dr. Gebhardt in the operation room, but the four camp inmates who was him carry out the operation told me about it.
I also heard him say himself later on that he had operated on me, as well as on 9 other prisoners, of whom I shall speak later. I lost consciousness before being taken to the operation room. When I asked Dr. Oberhauser why I was going to be operated on she replied that, since I belonged to the Polish resistance, it gave the Germans a right to carry out experiments on me.
"The first dressing of my wound took place two weeks after the operation Dr. Gebhardt did it. At that time I had about 41 degree centigrade fever. My leg was in a plaster cast from hip to ankle and I could not move. Nurse Erika took care of me and of those who had been operated on at the same time.
"By order of Oberhauser, we were given neither medicine nor morphia. At the first dressing of my wound Dr. Gebhardt, Fischer, Oberhauser and Rosenthal were present. The plaster-cast was removed after an incision and I could see a deep hole in the bone, about 20 centimeters long. The wound was very dirty and filled with pus. The whole leg was very red. I could not bend the knee. In the wound I could see a small piece of metal which seemed to be wrapped in cloth. Dr. Gebhardt took it out and put it in a basin. He cleaned out the wound and put Rivanel, white powder and vaseline on it. My leg was then put back in the plaster-cast up to the knee with an opening around the wound, so that the pus could flow out. After this dressing I had less fever for some time, but a week later the fever went up again. My knee was very much swollen and there were long red lines along my thigh, there was a heavy discharge of pus from the wound all the time.
"When I asked Dr. Oberhauser to dress my leg, she refused. But after a few days the wound looked so bad that she consented to dress it. She closed the door of the Revier, removed the plaster-cast and cleaned out the wound, putting only vaseline on it, then she put back the old plaster-cast. During all this time and despite my pains, I was given neither morphia nor any other medicine to relieve them.
"After another examination all the girls who had been operated on at the same time as I were placed on beds in a room and covered up with sheets leaving only the legs free.
Then about 10 or 12 physicians came to examine our legs one after the other. I could not understand much of what they were saying because they were using medical expressions, but I heard Gebhardt say to the other physicians that he had operated on me himself. Among the physicians present were Dr. Gebhardt, Fischer, Rosenthal, Oberhauser and Schidlauski. All the physicians examined our legs and Oberhauser gave some kind of a lecture about mine. After that, my leg was dressed again.
"Shortly after Schidlauski told me that he would have to cut off my leg. I protested and refused. We then stretched my leg which had been bent so far and placed a handbag over my knee. The plaster-case was removed and the wound dressed. Two days later Oberhauser dressed the wound which was still suppurating and the fever disappeared gradually.
"I stayed at the Revier for two months and was then sent back to my block. My leg was still suppurating, the wound had not healed yet.
"In summer 194* my leg started to swell again and I again had a high fever.
"I asked Treite to operate on me. He refused saying that he did not want to carry out any dirty operations and that Dr. Gebhardt could do it if he likes to. Dr. Treite however gave permission to a German female doctor, who was a prisoner, to operate on my leg. She cut it open along the old scar and found out that another wound had appeared underneath. The wounds were stuffed with cotton impregnated with vaseline. I stayed at the Revier for four weeks and Kurt dressed the wounds every second day. Afterwards I was sent back to my block. After two weeks the two new wounds had healed, and only the first wound was still open.
"After I had spent a week in the block the fever came back and I was sent to the X-ray department to have my chest examined. There was nothing wrong with my lungs. A polish female doctor, Zofis Macza, gave me Prentosdl injections which did not help any. I had intermittent fever and was given pyramiden injections (usually pyramiden is given through the mouth). The pyramiden had been sent by my father who had learned that an experimental operation had been carry out on me and who sent it concealed in packages. This treatment reduced the fe "In October 1943 I again had a very high fever and by leg again showed signs of infection.
Treite ordered an infrared light treatment. For this treatment, I had to go to the Revier twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. After two months, I was sent back to my block.
"I stayed there until 4 January 1945, the day chosen for our execution. We knew that we were to be executed that day, because all these who had been operated on had been given order not to leave the block and to remain at the disposal of the camp commander. Dr. Gebhardt had given to the Political Section a list with our names, stating that we were to be placed in the gas chamber. One of us succeeded in speaking to Suhren who told here that he had nothing to do with that, but that Gebhardt had taken all the decisions. We then hid in other blocks and took other numbers. Three French women and two Norwegian women accepted voluntarily to replace us in the lot which was to go to the gas chamber, so that we would be left as a proof of what the Germans had done to us. I then succeeded in having myself sent to an ammunition factory in Neustad-Glober from which I escaped on 28 March 1945 and went to Hamburg, where I said I was a Ukrainian and I worked on a farm.
My arm had been injured during my flight. The wound had not been dressed for two weeks until it got infected and my leg also showed signs of infection again. I was then attended by a German female physician whom I told that I had been wounded in Stettin.
"On 1 May 1945 the British troops arrived at last.
"Dr. Gebhardt was assisted in his work by a Polish prisoner. Her name was Holina Chelmicka. She used to prepare the operation room for the operations, she did not live in the camp but in Hohenlychen and she was a close friend of Oberhauser. Holina refused to examine the pus in my leg because she said it was too dangerous.
"Dr. Rosenthal was very cruel when he dressed wounds. Dr. Schidlauski was also very cruel, he used to kick the patients.
"Joanna Sayotowska, 7 Sacwaka, Lublin, Poland, gave pictures of our legs and a report to a British officer.
"Jola Krysanowska, Eugenia Nieba, Isabella Stecinska, Jadurga Pawlowska are the friends who stole large quantities of medicine for us.
"I recognize the photograph of the man No.3 on the photographs 123-A and 123-B, it is Gebhardt. Photograph No. 1 is Treite, No. 3 is Pflaum. No. 9 is Rosenthal and No. 10 is Skene.
The group of 9 prisoners to which I belonged had been given special numbers after the operation. The first three had number T1, T2 and T3. The following had Tk1, Tk2 and Tk3, and the last had TKM1, TKM2 and TKM3. I had TKM3".
Signed "Kwanska Janina" In this affidavit, the court will recall that the first date mentioned in January 1945, was the day chosen for their executions; and you will also recall that the four Polish witnesses who testified here before the Christmas recess also testified concerning this day when an attempt was made to round up all of the so-called guinea pigs in the camp; and, how they managed to escape through the confusion and greatly overcrowded condition, and were therefore able to live through it, and flustrate the attempts of the Germans to do away with them.