A. My leg was swollen up; caused me great pain; and the pus drained from my leg.
A. Were you able to work?
A. I was unable to work; and I had to stay in bod because I could not walk.
A. Do you remember when you got up out of bed and were able to walk?
A. I stayed in bed several weeks; and then I got up and tried to walk.
A. How long was it until your leg was healed?
A. The pus was flowing from my leg till June, 1943; and at that time my wound was healed.
A. Were you operated on again?
A. Yes, I was operated on again in the Bunker.
A. In the Bunker? That is net in the hospital?
A. Not in the hospital but in the bunker.
A. Will you explain to the Tribunal how that happened?.
A. May I ask permission to tell something which happened in 1-arch, 1943, march or February 1943?
Q. All right.
A. At the end of February 1943, Dr. Oberhauser called us and said, "Those girls are new guinea-pigs"; and we were very well known under this name in the camp. Then mu understood that we were persons intended for experiments and. we decided to protest against the performance of those operations on healthy people.
We drew up a protest in writing and we went to the camp commander. Not only those girls who had been operated on before but other girls who were called, to the hospital came to two office. The operated on girls used crutches and they went without any help.
I would like to tell the contents of the petition made by us. We, the undersigned, Polish political prisoners, ask Herr Commander whether he knew that since the year 1942 in the camp hospital experimental operations have taken place under the name of guinea-pig (das sind neve kaninehen), as explaining the meaning of those operations.
We ask whether we were operated on as a result of sentences passed on us because, as far as we know, the international law forbids the performance of operations even on political prisoners.
We did not get any answer; and we were not allowed to talk to the commander. On time 15th of August, 1943, a police woman came and read off the names of ten new prisoners. She told us to follow her to the hospital We refused to go to the hospital, as wo thought that wo were intended for a new operation. The police woman told us that we were going probably to be sent to the factory for work outside the camp. We wanted to make sure whether the Arbeitsamt was open because it was Sunday. The police woman told us that we had to go to the hospital and be examined by a doctor before we went to the factory.
We refused to go then because we were sure that we will be kept in the hospital and operated on again. All prisoners in tho camp were told to stay in tho blocks. All of the women who lived in the sane block whore I was were told to leave tho block and stand in line before the Block ten at a time. Then the Overseer Binz appeared and called out ton names and among them was my name. We wont out of the line and stood before the ninth block in line. Then Binz said: Why do you stand so in line as if you were to be executed?" We told her that operations were worse for us than executions and that wo would prefer to be executed rather than to be operated on again. Binz told us that she might give us work, there was no question of our being operated on but we were going to be sent for work outside the Camp. We told her that we must know that prisoners belonging to our group are not allowed to leave the camp and go outside the camp. Then she told us to follow her into her office, that she would show us a paper proving that we are going to be sent for work to the factory outside the camp. We followed her and we stood before her office. She entered her office for awhile and then wont out and wont to the canteen where the Camp Commander was. She had a conference with kin probably asking him what to do with us. We stood before the office a half an hour. In the meantime one follow-prisoner who used to work in the canteen walked by us. She told us that Binz asked for help from SS men to take us by force to tho hospital. We stood for a while and then Binz came out of the canteen accompanied by the Camp Commander. We stood for awhile near the camp gate. We were afraid that SS men would come to take us so we ran away and mixed with other people standing before tko block. Then Binz and the camp police appeared. They drove us out from tho lines by force. She told us that she out us into the bunker as punishment; that wo did not follow her orders.
In each cell were put five prisoners although one cell was intended only for one person. The cells were quito dark; without lights. We stayed in the bunker the whole night long and the next day. We slept on the floor because there was only one couch in the cell. The next day we were given a breakfast consisting of black coffee and a piece of dark bread. Then we were locked again in this dark room. We were only troubled by people walking in the corridor of tho bunker. The answer was given us the same day in the afternoon. The watch-woman from the bunker unlocked our coll and got; mo out of the cell. I thought that I was then to be interrogated or beaten. They took me and they wont down tho corridor. She opened one door and behind tho door stood SS man Dr. Trommel. He told me to follow him upstairs. Following Dr. Trommel I noticed there were other cells, and those cells were with bed clothing. He put me in one of the cells. Then he asked me whether I would agree to a small operation. I told him that I did not agree to it because I had undergone already two operations. He told me that this was going to be a very small operation and that it will not harm me. I told him that I was a political prisoner and that the operation cannot be performed on political prisoners without their consent He told me to lie down on the bed; I refused to do so.
He repeated it twice. Then he went out of the cell and I followed him. He went quickly downstairs and locked the door. Standing before the cell I noticed a cell on the opposite side of the Staircase, and I also noticed some men in operating gowns. There was also one German nurse ready to give an injection. Near the staircase stood a stretcher. That made it clear to me that I was going to be operated in again in the Bunker. I decided to defend myself to the last moment. In a moment Trommel come back with two SS men. One of these SS men told me to enter the cell. I refused to do it, so he forced me into the cell and threw me on the bed.
Dr. Trommel took me by the left wrist and pulled my arm back. With his other hand he tried to gag me, putting a piece of rag into my mouth, because I shouted. The second SS man took my right hand and stretched it. Twice other SS men held me by my feet. Immobilized, I felt that somebody was giving me an injection. I defended myself for a long time, but then I grew weaker. The injection had its effect; I felt sleepy. I heard Trommel saying, "Das ist fertig", that is all.
I regained consciousness again, but I don't know when. Then I noticed the German nurse was taking off my dress, I then lost consciousness again; I regained it in the morning. Then I noticed that both my legs were in iron splints and were bandaged from the toes up to the grain. I felt a strong pain in my feet, and a temperature.
In the afternoon of the same day a German nurse come and gave me an injection, in spite of my protests; she gave me this injection on my thigh and told me that she had to do it.
Four days after this operation a doctor from Hohenlychen arrived, again gave me an injection to put me to sleep, and as I pretested he told me that he would change the dressing, I felt a higher temperature and stronger pain in my legs.
Q. Now, witness, when was it that you were removed from the bunker after this operation?
A. Ten days after the operation performed in the bunker I was taken --in the night-time-- to the hospital.
Q. Well, that must have been around the latter part of August, is that right; August 1943?
A. Yes it was.
Q. Now, was another operation performed on you in September 1943?
A. About the 15th of September 1943 I was a gain taken to the operating room and a further operation was performed on my left leg.
Q. Now, in the operation in the bunker they operated on both legs, is that right?
A. Yes in the bunker I was operated on both legs.
Q. In the bunker Operation, were your legs dirty the next a ruing after you woke up; that is, following the operation?
A. When I woke up after the operation that I underwent in the bunker, I noticed that my feet were dirty, covered with mud, that they had not been washed before the operation.
Q. Who performed this operation around the 13th of September 1943 in the camp hospital, do you know?
A. The doctor from Hohenlychen arrived. I was taken to the operating room, I was given an injection, and an operation was performed on my left leg.
Q. Do you know the name of the man who performed the operation?
A. A german nurse told me that this was a doctor from Hohenlychen, assistant to the Chief doctor, whose name was Hartmenn--Dr. Hartmann. However, I don't know whether he actually performed the operation.
Q. Did the nurse tell you that Hartmann was assistant to Dr. Gebhardt?
A. She told, me only that this was a doctor, an assistant, from Hohenlychen.
Q. All right. Now, after this operation on your left leg the middle of September 1943, did they, several weeks later, operation your right leg?
A. Two weeks later a second operation was performed on my loft leg although pus was draining from my former wound, and a piece of shin bone was removed.
Q. Now. witness, I'm a little bit confused. I thought you said that on 15 September 1943 they operated again on your left leg. I asked you if two weeks later they performed an operation on your right log.
A. On 15 September 1943 my right leg was operated on, in spite of the wounds, and two weeks later my left leg was operated on.
Q. Now, do you say, witness, that they removed a piece of shin b no from your lugs in those operations.
A. Yes, I do.
Q. Now, how long were you in the hospital after these operations in September 1943?
A. I stayed in the hospital six months. I was in bed. I could not stretch my legs. I could not move them. I could not walk either.
Q. When were you removed from the hospital?
A. At the end of February, 1944.
Q. Were you able to walk then?
A. I tried to walk at that time but could't walk.
Q. What sort of work did you do then?
A. When I arrived at the block I stayed in bed for a time and then I used to work at knitting stockings.
Q. Have you received any treatment to either of your less since you were liberated from Ravensbruck?
Q. Do you still suffer any affects from those operations?
A. I'm weak, I have no strength to work and my legs got swollen up very easily.
Q. Witness, I am having handed to you two pictures. Those are Documents Nos. 108 1A and 108 1B. Are those pictures taken of you here in Nurnburg?
A. Yes. they were.
Q. I submit these pictures as Prosecution Exhibit 211.
Now, witness, will you please remove the shoes and stockings from both of your legs. Now, will you step out from behind the witness box and let the Court see the scars on your legs.
(The witness complied).
New turn around once, please. Just turn around slowly. Thank you. Sit down new .
Were you over asked to consult to any of these operations which you underwent at Ravensbruck?
Q. How many times did you see Gebhardt?
Q I will ask you to stop down and walk ever to the defendants' dock and see whether or net you find the man Gebhardt sitting in the dock.
(The witness complies and pointed to the defendant Gebhardt).
Thank you. Sit down.
I will ask that the record show that the witness properly identified the defendant Gebhardt.
THE PRESIDENT: The record will show that the witness identified the defendant Gebhardt in the deck.
MR. MCHANEY: I have no further questions at this time.
THE PRESIDENT: Will Dr. Alexander be again out on the stand in connection with the examination of this widens?
MR. MCHANEY: Yes, but if there is any cross-examination we can probably finish that before lunch.
THE PRESIDENT: Do any of the defense counsel desire to cross-examine this witness?
DR. SIEDL (Counsel for the defendants Gebhardt, Oberheuser and Fischer): I do not intend to cross-examine this witness but this does not mean that my clients admit the correctness of all statements made by this witness.
THE PRESIDENT: Does any other of the defense counsel desire to examine the witness?
MR. MCHaNEY: Dr. Alexander can take the stand now. I don't know how long.
THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal will now recess until 1:30 (A recess was taken until 1330) AFTERNOON SESSION (The hearing reconvened at 1330 hours, December 20th, 1946)
THE MARSHAL: Military Tribunal 1 is now again in session. You will all arise.
MR. McHANEY: With the permission of the Tribunal, I would like to put four additional questions to this witness before calling Dr. Alexander to the stand again, if I may. Let's see. (peruse document) WLADISLAWA KAROLEWSKI (resumed) BY MR. McHANEY:
Q. Witness, to sum up: Is it true that you were operated upon six times while at the Concentration Camp Ravensbruck?
A. I was six times operated on at the Concentration Camp at Ravensbruck.
Q. Do you know, approximately, how many women were operate upon experimentally?
A. Yes, I know. And I know in the exact figure. Seventy four.
A. Yes, seventy four.
Q. Do you know whether any of those women who were operated upon experimentally, died?
A. Yes, five women who have one to experimental operations, died.
Q. And did they die as the result of these operations?
A. Yes, they died after those operations.
Q. Were you ever told that you were condemned to death because of your polish resistance activities?
A. I have never been told so, but I supposed that I was sentenced to death because many of my comrades who arrived with me in the same transport, were sentenced to death.
Q. Do you know whom they were sentenced, was it by some military Tribunal or Court?
A. I don't know. I think they must have been condemned to death by the Gestapo.
MR. McHANEY: I have no further questions. I would like, at this time, if there is no cross-examination on these additional questions, to call Dr. Alexander to the stand.
THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal has a question to put to the witness.
BY THE PRESIDENT:
Q. Do you know the nationality of those women who died as a result of these operations or any of then?
A. Those women were of polish nationality, and came with the same transport to ether with me.
THE PRESIDENT: Hes the Defense any cross-examination of this witness, in connection with the questions that were prepounded to her?
THE PRESIDENT: There being no question, the prosecution may proceed. Call Dr. Alexander.
Dr. ALEXANDER (resumed) DIRECT EXAMINATION BY MR McHANEY:
DR. ALEXANDER: With the permission of the Court -
MR. McHANEY: --Just a moment, Doctor. I think the record should show that this is the same Dr. Alexander that testified t this morning, and that he is still under oath.
THE PRESIDENT: The record will show that the witness who is now on the stand is the same Dr. Alexander when testified this morning.
(Addressing the witness) Doctor, you are still under oath.
THE WITNESS: Yes, sir.
BY MR. McHANEY:
Q. Doctor, have you conducted a physical examination of the witness Karelewska?
A. Yes, sir.
Q. And were certain X-Rays of this witness made under your direction?
A. Yes, sir.
Q. Doctor, I am having handed to you documents No. 1089 and 1090 -
A. -- Yes, sir -
Q. Will you state whether or not those are X-Rays made of the legs of the witness Karolewska?
A. Yes sir, they are.
MR. Mc HANEY: I offer Document No. 1089 as a Prosecution Exhibit 212. And document No. 1090 as Prosecution Exhibit 213.
Q. BY MR. McHANEY: Now, Doctor, will you proceed to give the Court, the Tribunal, the result of your examination of this witness Karolewska. And I would suggest that you have her move her chair or under and sit to your left.
(Dr. ALexander proceeds to move witness'chair as directed)
DR. ALEXANDER: (To the witness) Will you please?
(At this juncture Dr. Alexander has the chair arranged for the witness and has her seated at Dr. Alexander's left)
MR. ALEXANDER: (The witness; continuing) This X-Ray of the witness Karolewska shows three distinct major scars, which fit into two different patterns of experimentations. The one above, the oldest one (indicating) is on the right leg; consists of a deep retracted scar over the right muscular Soleus.
(Addressing the witness Karolewska) Will you please stand up and turn around, very slowly. (The witness does as directed) just turn. (The witness turns) Just turn gradually very slowly. (The witness does as directed) The lower and of this scar, terminates three and one half inches above the ankle; here (indicating), the whole scar measured three and one half inches and is half an inch wide. This scar, obviously, is the result of one of the infection experiments, an is recognized by her as the scar dated in the Summer of 1942. The other set of scars, are two in number, and they are oath involving the anterior part of the shin bones; the one over the anterior aspect of each tibia -
THE PRESIDENT: ---(addressing or. Alexander) -- will you speak more slowly so that the interpreters can get it?
DR. ALEXANDER: (The witness) Yes, sir.
(Continuing) Both of these anterior scars, over either leg, are deep, retracted, and involve the bone, which feels ragged underneath the scar, a ragged unevenness, under the scars, over which the unevenness of the bone can be felt. Both of these scars feel warm to the palpitating finger of the examiner. The terminating part of the scar, which is higher, fells warmer, indicating an increased circulation in the region. The scar over the left leg, involving the medical part of the tibia, is five inches long and is obviously the residue of the one experiment. The one over the right leg, is also five inches long, and 3/8th of an inch wide. There are two or three scars, laterally adjacent to this big scar, which can no longer be seen very clearly. The main scar to the right is symmetric; both of those scars are symmetric to each other. Both involve the inner part of the medial line of the tibia; not the anterior; the crest of the tibia, that is, the inner or medial aspect or the tibia, which is involved.
Both of those scars involve the medial part, which means the inner part of the tibia. The crest of the tibia is not involved in the scar. The crest of the interior part of the tibia is not involved. Both of these scars are the result of the experimentations. The lower scar on the top, on the left, is five inches above the ankle. That is, five inches. That on the right, four and one half inches above the ankle. Examination of the X-Rays confirm this impression.
Both these X-rays of both legs show an area of irregularity measuring 6 centimeters in length involving the lower part of the upper half of the tibia. The X-rays show the following: At this area which in the Exhibit I have marked with A, you can see that the margin of the tibial bone is not sharp but fluffy.
MR. McHANEY: Doctor, this is Document NO-1089 to which you are referring, is it not?
DR. ALEXANDER: Yes, Document Number NO-1069. This fluffy edge of the bone, indicating that the outer compact lamella of the bone has been removed or is absent, shows decalcification to a depth of about 4 millimeters. I have marked this area with a B, outer decalcified part of the tibiae surrounded by line and marked B. You see the color is lighter there and in the negative X-ray it is less white. Underneath that you see an area marked C which goes inward to half the thickness of the tibiae bone where there is an increased density, white in the X-ray negative, black in the photograph, marked C, which indicates sclerosis of the spongy part of the bone. This entire picture indicates that a bone graft has been removed from this region. Therefore the outer delineation of the bone has become indistinct. The outer marginal part of the bone is decalcified while underneath the decalcified part an area of sclerosis has developed.
JUDGE SEBRING: Doctor, are you conversant with the German language?
DR. ALEXANDER: Yes, Sir.
JUDGE SEBRING: I wonder if we could save time if you were to make your short explanation in English and then make it in German for the benefit of...
DR. ALEXANDER: Very well. Shall I repeat the description of the X-rays?
JUDGE SEBRING: Just as to the description of the X-rays.
DR. ALEXANDER: In German, yes. (Dr. Alexander repeats the description in German.)
THE PRESIDENT: Doctor, you have repeated in German the same description of the X-rays that you previously gave in English?
DR. ALEXANDER: In free translation, not verbatim, In conclusion, (additional description in German). I repeat this in English--this indicates removal of a bone graft ascertained by the fact that no compact outer zone has been substituted. Instead of that a sclerosis underneath a decalcified outer part has formed.
The other X-ray, marked as Document No. NO-1090, which is taken from a lateral plane, from the sides, does not show the bone defect, indicating that the defect is limited to the medial aspect of the bone.
MR. McHANEY: Doctor, as a result of your examination can you make any report about the character of this woman, her psychology, etcetera?
DR. ALEXANDER: Miss Karolewska is a very able woman, of superior intelligence, who speaks fluent French, who is very well informed, has a very clear manner cf expression, and impresses one as a woman of outstanding stamina and personality assets--in every way a highly useful citizen, both in peace and as a soldier in time of war. She impresses me as the type of person who is naturally destined to leadership in any community, civilian as well as military.
MR. McHANEY: I think I have no further questions to put to Dr. Alexander.
DR. ALEXANDER: I would like to say she is a school teacher by occupation.
MR. McHANEY: I think tint the witness, Karolewska, can step down from the stand at this point.
JUDGE SEBRING: Dr. Alexander, what is your prognosis of this condition?
DR. ALEXANDER: There is one thing, of course, the stability of her tibiae has been interfered with; a certain amount of bone marrow has been lost and of course the bone marrow being the place where red blood cells are manufactured and immune reactions are taking place, any loss of bone marrow is, of course, a health handicap. In addition she has pain in relation to the scars where the sensitive spongy inner bone has come very close to the skin. We know bone is very rich in nerve supply, hence a certain amount of pain has to be reckoned with. At present her blood count is normal and her blood picture, apart from her very minor irregularity such as 6 ecsinophiles, has remained normal.
MR. McHANEY: Doctor, can you express any opinion as to the purpose of the type of operation to which she was subject, that is the bone removal?
DR. ALEXANDER: I think it must have been one of the experiments which aimed at the question of regeneration of bone or possible transplantation of bone. Chances are that this tibial graft was either implanted in another person or that grafts had been exchanged which of course today, 3 years after the ex periment, no trace of transplantation is left in this individual.
Or if the object was, such as alleged in some statements I have seen, that tibial grafts were exchanged between the two legs, one must conclude that the experiment was negative because there is no evidence that a graft took. All we see now are the consequences of removal of a graft, and the graft had included the entire compact part of the bone, otherwise the repair would have been better. If some part of the compact had remained, the periosteum would have probably regenerated and today, 3 years after the operation, no X-ray would have shown the defect. So I feel that rather deep grafts were taken which went down into the spongiosa and whether anything was replaced that later was destroyed, I do not know, except the patient stated that there was a purulent discharge, indicating that the wound had become infected, and her statement of a subsequent operation, in fact, if I am not mistaken, 2 subsequent operations, indicates the probability that the graft did not take and that they were removed after infection had become obvious.
MR. McHANEY: I have no further questions.
THE PRESIDENT: Does any Counsel for the Defense desire to cross-examine Dr. Alexander in regards to his testimony for this witness?
No such desire being indicated, tho Doctor may stand down.
MR. McHANEY: I think that this witness, Karolewska, can be excused at this time.
THE PRESIDENT: There being no further questions to be propounded to this witness, Karolewska, the witness nay leave the stand.
MR. McHANEY: The Prosecution requests that the witness Jadwiga Dzide be called to the stand.
THE PRESIDENT: The Prosecution will call the witness, Jadwiga Dzide. The interpreter having already been sworn, I will administer the oath to the witness.
I solemnly swear that the evidence I shall give shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help me God.
(The witness repeated the oath through the Interpreter)
THE PRESIDENT: The witness will be seated.
DIRECT EXAMINATION BY MR. HARDY. (Through the Interpreter)
Q. Witness, what is your full name?
A. Jadwiga Dzido.
Q. Do you spell that J-a-d-w-i-g-a, last name spelled D-z-i-d-o?
Q. Witness, you were born on the 26th of January, 1918?
Q. You are a citizen of Poland?
Q. Have you come here to Nurnberg voluntarily to testify?
Q. Would you kindly tell the Tribunal your present home address?
A. Warsaw, Garnoslonska 14.
Q. Witness, are you married?
Q. Are your parents living?
Q. What education have you received?
A. I have finished the elementary school and gymnasium at Warsaw. I started -- in 1937 I started studying Pharmacology at the University in Warsaw.
Q. Did you graduate from the University in Warsaw?
Q. What did you do after you had finished school in the University of Warsaw?
A. I started studying Pharmacology at the University, and then when I was studying the second year, the war break out.
Q. What did you do after the war broke out.
A. In 1939 I was working in a Pharmacy during the holidays.
Q. Were you a member of the Resistance Movement?
A. In the Autumn of 1944 I entered the Resistance Underground.
Q. What did you do in the Resistance Movement?
A. I was a messenger.
Q. Then were you later captured by the Gestapo and placed under arrest?
A. I was arrested by Gestapo on the 28th of March 1941.
Q. What happened to you after your arrest by the Gestapo?
A. I was interrogated by Gestapo in Lublin, Lukow, Radzin. Lukow, Lublin, Radzin.
Q. And what happened after that?
A. In Lublin I was beaten while being naked.
Q. Did you then receive any further treatment from the Gestapo, or were you released?
A. I stayed in Lublin six weeks in the Underground of the building of Gestapo.
Q. Then were you sent to the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp?
A. On the twenty-third of September, 1941, I was transported to the concentration camp, Ravensbrueck.
Q. Were you told why you were sent to the concentration camp in Ravensbrueck?
A. No, I was not told.
Q. Were you ever given a trial in any German court?
Q. Who sent you to Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp?
A. All ****** who were in the prison at Lublin were sent there, and I went with them.
Q. Now will you tell the Court, Miss Dzido, in your own words what happened to you after you arrived at Ravensbrueck?
A. When I arrived in the concentration camp Ravensbrueck, I thought that I would be able to stay there till the end of the war. The life conditions at Ravensbrueck -- in the prison were such that we could not live any longer there. In the camp we had to work, but in the camp it was not so dirty, and there were not so many lice as used to be in the prison.
Q. What work did you do in the camp, Witness?
A. I did the physical work inside or outside the camp.
Q. Were you ever operated on in the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp?
A. I was operated in November, 1942.
Q. Will you kindly explain the circumstances of this operation to the Tribunal?
A. In 1942 great hunger and terror reigned in the camp. Germans were at the zenith of their power. You could see on the face of every SS women haughtiness and pride. We were told each day every day that we were nothing but numbers, that we had to forget that we were human beings, that we had somebody who think of us -- who thinks of us, that we would never come back to our country, that we are slaves and that we have only to work. We were not allowed to smile, to cry or to pray. We were not allowed to defend ourselves when we were beaten. There was no hope to -- of going back to my country.
Q. Now, Witness, did you say that you were operated on in the Ravensbrueck Concentration Camp on November 22, 1942?
Q. Now, on November 22, 1942, the day of this operation, will you kindly tell the Tribunal all that happened during that time?
A. That day the policewoman, camp policewoman, came with a piece of paper where my name was written down. The policewoman told us to follow her. When I asked her where we were going, she told me that she didn't know. She took us to the hospital. I didn't know what was going to happen to me. It might have been an execution, transport for work, or operation.
Dr. Oberhauser appeared and told me to undress and examined me. Then I was X-rayed. I stayed in the hospital. My dress was taken away from me. I was operated on the 22 November 1942 in the morning. A German nurse came, shaved my legs and gave me something to drink. When I asked her what she was going to do with me she didn't give me any answer. In the afternoon I was taken on a small hospital car to the operating room. I must have been very exhausted and tired and that's why I don't remember whether I had got an injection or whether a mask had been put on my face. I didn't see the operating room.
When I came back I remember that I had no wound on my leg, but a trace of a sting. Since that time I don't remember anything till January. I learned from my comrades who lived in the same room that my leg had been operated on. I remember what was going on in January, and I know that the dressings had been changed several times.
Q. Witness, do you know who performed the operation upon your leg?
A. I don't know.
Q. Now, you say that you had dressings changed. Who changed the dressings on your leg?
A. The dressings were changed by Mr. Oberhauser, Rosenthal and Schiedlaudski.
Q. Did you suffer a great deal while these dressings were being changed?
A. Yes, very much.
Q. Witness, will you step down from the witness box and walk over to the Defendants dock and see if you can recognize anyone in that dock as being at Ravensbrueck concentration camp during the period and during the time that you were operated on?